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House of Plantagenet - Armorial of Plantagenet

Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwell PlantagenetAge: 6212091272

Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwell Plantagenet
Given names
Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwell

Richard (1st Earl of Cornwall) Plantagenet

Richard (1st Earl of Cornwall) Plantagenet
Given names
Richard (1st Earl of Cornwall)
Birth January 5, 1209 42 21
Birth of a brotherJoan, Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland Plantagenet
1210 (Age 11 months)

Birth of a brotherIsabella, Consort of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Plantagenet
1214 (Age 4)

Birth of a brotherEleanor Plantagenet
1215 (Age 5)

Death of a fatherKing John Lackland Plantagenet
October 19, 1216 (Age 7)
Marriage of a siblingHenry III, King of England PlantagenetEleanor of Provence BerengerView this family
January 14, 1236 (Age 27)
Death of a half-sisterJoan (Princess of England) Plantagenet
February 1237 (Age 28)
Death of a brotherJoan, Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland Plantagenet
1238 (Age 28)

Marriage of a half-siblingLlewelyn Ap LorwerthJoan (Princess of England) PlantagenetView this family
April 16, 1240 (Age 31)
Death of a brotherIsabella, Consort of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Plantagenet
1241 (Age 31)

MarriageSanchia of Provence, Queen of the Germans BerengerView this family
November 23, 1243 (Age 34)
Death of a motherIsabella De Taillefer
May 31, 1246 (Age 37)
Birth of a son
Richard Plantagenet
1252 (Age 42)
Death of a wifeSanchia of Provence, Queen of the Germans Berenger
November 9, 1261 (Age 52)
Death April 2, 1272 (Age 63)
Death of a brotherHenry III, King of England Plantagenet
November 16, 1272 (Age 63)
Death 1272 (Age 62)

1st Earl of Cornwall, King of the Romans

Family with parents - View this family
Marriage: August 24, 1200Bordeaux, Gironde, France
7 years
elder brother
15 months
2 years
younger brother
5 years
younger brother
2 years
younger brother
Father’s family with Agatha De Ferrers - View this family
Marriage: 1189Coucy, Alsne, France
Family with Sanchia of Provence, Queen of the Germans Berenger - View this family
Marriage: November 23, 1243Westminster Abbe, Westminster, Middlesex, England
9 years
Richard Plantagenet
Birth: 1252 42 27Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire, England
Death: 1296Kenwick, (Siege of), Berwick, Northumberland, England

SourceTaut, Anne. "The Kings and Queens of Great Britain" pub by Elm Tree
SourceRoyal & Biblical Lines
Note,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall Richard of Cornwall (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (from 1225 to 1243), Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) and German King (formally "King of the Romans", from 1257). One of the wealthiest men in Europe, he also joined the Sixth Crusade, where he achieved success as a negotiator for the release of prisoners, and assisted with the building of the citadel in Ascalon.
Biography He was born at Winchester Castle, the second son of King John. He was made High Sheriff of Berkshire at the age of only eight, was styled Count of Poitou from 1225 and in the same year, at the age of sixteen, his brother king Henry gave him Cornwall as a birthday present. Richard's revenues from Cornwall provided him with great wealth, and he became one of the wealthiest men in Europe. Though he campaigned on King Henry's behalf in Poitou and Brittany, and served as Regent three times, relations were often strained between the brothers in the early years of Henry's reign. Richard rebelled against him three times, and had to be bought off with lavish gifts. In March 1231 he married Isabel Marshal, the rich widow of the Earl of Gloucester, much to the displeasure of his brother Henry, who feared the Marshall family because they were rich, influential, and often opposed him. Richard became stepfather to Isabel's six children from her first husband. In that same year he acquired his main residence, Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire), and spent much money on developing it. He had other favoured properties at Marlow and Cippenham in Buckinghamshire. Isabel and Richard had four children, of whom only their son, Henry of Almain, survived to adulthood. When Isabel was on her deathbed in 1240, she asked to be buried next to her first husband at Tewkesbury, but Richard had her interred at Beaulieu Abbey instead. As a pious gesture, however, he sent her heart to Tewkesbury. Later that year Richard joined the Sixth Crusade and departed for the Holy Land. He fought in no battles but managed to negotiate for the release of prisoners and the burials of Crusaders killed at a battle in Gaza in 1239. He also refortified Ascalon, which had been demolished by Saladin. On his return from the Holy Land, Richard visited his sister Isabella, the empress of Frederick II. Richard opposed Simon de Montfort, and rose in rebellion in 1238 to protest against the marriage of his sister, Eleanor, to Simon. Once again he was placated with rich gifts, but in 1240 when he and Montfort joined the Crusade at the same time, they made a point of not travelling together. On his return, Richard married Sanchia of Provence, the sister of his brother Henry's queen, Eleanor. This marriage tied him even more closely to the royal party. Richard's claims to Gascony and Poitou were never more than nominal, and in 1241 King Louis IX of France invested his own brother Alphonse with Poitou. Moreover, Richard and Henry's mother, Isabella of Angouleme, claimed to have been insulted by the French king. They were encouraged to recover Poitou by their stepfather, Hugh X of Lusignan, but the expedition turned into a military fiasco after Lusignan betrayed them. The pope offered Richard the crown of Sicily, but according to Matthew Paris he responded to the extortionate price by saying, "You might as well say, 'I make you a present of the moon - step up to the sky and take it down'."[1] Instead, his brother King Henry purchased the kingdom for his own son Edmund. Although Richard was elected in 1256 as King of Germany by four of the seven German Electoral Princes (Cologne, Mainz, the Palatinate and Bohemia), his candidacy was opposed by Alfonso X of Castile who was elected by Saxony, Brandenburg and Trier. The pope and king Louis IX of France favoured Alfonso, but both were ultimately convinced by the powerful relatives of Richard's sister in law, Eleanor of Provence, to support Richard. Ottokar II of Bohemia, who at first voted for Richard but later elected Alfonso, eventually agreed to support the earl of Cornwall, thus establishing the required simple majority. So Richard only had to bribe four of them, but this came at a huge cost of 28,000 marks! On May 27, 1257 the archbishop of Cologne himself crowned Richard "King of the Romans" in Aachen [2]. However, like his lordships in Gascony and Poitou, his title never held much significance, and he made only four brief visits to Germany between 1257 and 1269. He founded Burnham Abbey in Buckinghamshire in 1263, and the Grashaus, Aachen in 1266. He joined King Henry in fighting against Simon de Montfort's rebels in the Second Barons' War (1264–67). After the shattering royalist defeat at the Battle of Lewes, Richard took refuge in a windmill, was discovered, and imprisoned until September 1265. In December 1271 he had a stroke. His right side was paralyzed and he lost the ability to speak. On April 2, 1272, Richard died at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire. He was buried next to his second wife Sanchia of Provence and Henry of Almain, his son by his first wife, at Hailes Abbey, which he had founded. After his death, a power struggle ensued in Germany, which only ended by the emergence of a new Roman King, Rudolph I of Habsburg, the first scion of a long lasting noble family to rule the empire. In Cornwall, Richard was succeeded by Edmund, son of his second wife Sanchia. [edit] Marriages and Issue He married three times: Firstly, on 30 March 1231, at St Mary's Church at Fawley in Buckinghamshire, to Isabel Marshal, widow of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. She died in childbed 17 January 1240. Isabel bore him four children, all of whom died in the cradle, except Henry of Almain (1235–71), Richard's heir apparent. Henry was the victim of the famous murder at Viterbo, when he was cut down while praying in a church by his cousins, Simon the younger de Montfort and Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola. Secondly, on 23 November 1243, at Westminster Abbey, to Sanchia, daughter of Raymond Berenger IV, Count of Provence. She died 9 November 1261. Richard had three sons by Sanchia Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall (1249–1300) but he died childless Richard Cornwall (1252–96) who married Joan Saint Owen (born 1260) and had issue. He, however, died at the siege of Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1296 Richard Cornwall, infant who died within a month of his birth. Thirdly, on 16 June 1269, at Kaiserslautern, to Beatrice of Falkenburg, daughter of Dietrich I, Count of Falconburg. There were no children. She was aged about sixteen to Richard's sixty, and was said to be one of the most beautiful women of her time. Beatrice died 17 October 1277 and was buried at the Church of the Friars Minor in Oxford. Richard had the reputation of being a womanizer. His mistress, Joan de Valletort, was certainly the mother of at least two of his illegitimate children. Philip de Cornwall, was a cleric in 1248 Joan de Cornwall, in 1258. Walter de Cornwall, was granted lands by his half-brother Edmund, and died in 1313. [edit] Media Richard and his first wife, Isabel Marshall, appear as characters in Virginia Henley's historical novels, The Marriage Prize and The Dragon and the Jewel. [edit] Sources ^ Craik, George L, & Macfarlane, Charles, The Pictorial History of England, p.657 ^ Nancy Goldstone. Four Queens; The Provençal Sisters who ruled Europe. Pinguin Books, London, 2008, p. 213. Denholm-Young, Noel. Richard of Cornwall, 1947 Tyerman, Christopher. England and the Crusades, 1095–1588 Lewis, Frank. Beatrice of Falkenburg, the Third Wife of Richard of Cornwall, 1937 Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall House of Plantagenet Born: 5 January 1209 Died: 2 April 1272 Preceded by William of Holland King of Germany (formally King of the Romans) January 13, 1257 – April 2, 1272 (contested by Alfonso of Castile) Succeeded by Rudolf I English royalty Preceded by Henry of Winchester Heir to the English Throne as heir presumptive 19 October 1216 - 17 June 1239 Succeeded by Edward Longshanks Peerage of England Preceded by Otto IV of Brunswick Count of Poitiers 1209 – 1225 Succeeded by Alphonse of Toulouse (under the crown of France) New creation; Ultimately Henry Fitz-Count, 1st Earl of Cornwall Earl of Cornwall 1227 – 1272 Succeeded by Edmund
Created Earl of Poictiers in 1225, Elected King of the Romans and of Almaine 1256. Some say married 13 Mar 1231. Weir says died Berkhampstead Castle and buried Hayles Abbey. The Complete Peerage vol.IV,p.IV,pp.320-321,note c
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